The Indian community was then ravaged by a smallpox epidemic so her mother tried to burn all of the Native American things they had for fear that it would get her family sick. Mary, however, hid those drawings from her mother and so prevented them from being burned.
Mary also kept these same Sioux drawings for the rest of her life. Paul and taught art, drafting, and architecture for some years. By one account,  in Minnie Harvey Huckel helped Colter land a summer job with her family's Fred Harvey Company operator of the famous railstop Harvey House restaurants , decorating the Indian Building at the Alvarado Hotel in Albuquerque since demolished. Colter began working full-time for the company in , moving from interior designer to architect.
For the next 38 years, Colter served as chief architect and decorator for the Fred Harvey Company. Fred Harvey conquered the West along the Santa Fe's main route through strategic use of restaurant efficiency, clean-cut and pretty young women, high-end tourism, and quality souvenirs. Anthropologists on his staff located the most appealing Native American art and artifacts like pottery, jewelry, and leatherwork.
Mary Elizabeth Jane Colter was an American architect and designer. She was one of the very few female American architects in her day. She was the designer of many landmark buildings and spaces for the Fred Harvey Company and the Santa Fe Railroad. Colter also decorated, but did not design, the park's El Tovar Hotel. In , the Mary Jane Colter Buildings, as a group.
His merchandisers designed goods based on those artifacts. And in strategic locations, Colter produced commercial architecture with striking decor, based on some concern for authenticity, floorplans calculated for good user experience and commercial function, and a playful sense of the dramatic inside and out.
For a major expansion, Colter was assigned to do the interior design and decorating. Native American styles were employed in hand-crafted chandeliers, copper and tin lighting fixtures, tiles and textiles, and other ornamentation.
La Fonda became the most successful of the Harvey House hotels. Its striking blend of Pueblo people and Spanish artistic influences, today known locally as the Santa Fe Style , became very popular across the region. She also designed the Victor Hall for men, and the Colter Hall, a dormitory for Fred Harvey's women employees.
Colter's work is credited with inspiring the Pueblo Deco style.
The Harvey Company got the concession in to operate a camp at the bottom of the Grand Canyon. Considering the Phantom Ranch's location, Colter's use of on-site fieldstone and rough-hewn wood was deemed the only practical thing for the permanent buildings that replaced tents. Her structures at the Grand Canyon set the precedent for using on-site materials and bold, large-scale design elements.
The lodge features a remarkable "geological fireplace" in the History Room, with rocks arranged ceiling to floor in the same order as the geologic strata along the Bright Angel Trail down the canyon wall. A chain-smoking perfectionist, Colter cared about backstory and attractive features. She conceived Hermit's Rest as a sort of folly , as if it had been wired together by a reclusive mountain man.
The Hopi House was a market for Native American crafts, made by Hopi artisans on the site, and designed in sandstone to resemble a Hopi pueblo. Unfortunately, a recent cleaning eliminated the artificial age-effects.
The Watchtower was the product of travel and research, and she cared enough to herself prepare a written manual for guides. The original paintings inside the tower were by Hopi artist Fred Kabotie. She also insisted on her proposed name "Phantom Ranch" over "Roosevelt Ranch" to capitalize on better mental images. Her breakthrough creation incorporated Navajo sand paintings and rugs with hand-carved and hand-painted furniture.
The original plans sketched about bedrooms and 15 shared baths, making the structure physically obsolete before it was razed to make way for widening Route 77 in , shortly before Colter's death. Mary Colter herself declared the La Posada Hotel to be her masterpiece. The sprawling, hacienda-style Spanish Colonial Revival building  in Winslow, Arizona , has been called "the last great railroad hotel built in America".
She was architect and designer for the entire resort, from the buildings to the acres of gardens, the furniture, china—even the maids' uniforms.
Allen Affeldt heard about the endangered masterpiece, and in he and his wife Tina Mion , an artist, purchased it, and soon reopened parts of the hotel for business. Colter studied art and design in the West and was heavily influenced by the Arts and Crafts movement of the time.
She was not interested in the European ideals of architecture then in vogue. She felt they did not fit in the wild and expansive land of canyons and mesas, and she looked to the ancient Anasazi and Pueblo Indian cultures for inspiration. After spending several years back in St.
Paul teaching mechanical drawing, Colter took a job in with the Fred Harvey Company. This building was based on those found in Oraibi, a centuries-old village snuggled in the parched mesas of the Hopi reservation. The Hopi believe the first people emerged from the Grand Canyon, so the Hopi House seemed a natural place for artisans to live, work, and sell their crafts. Workers used available sandstone and rough-hewn timber to create small rooms with low-slung ceilings and tiny windows.
Corner fireplaces and display niches were built in. On the second floor the National Park Service has installed a wall-sized timeline illustrating her work.
The timeline makes it easier to understand and appreciate when, where, and how the architect created this and other iconic Grand Canyon landmarks. She returned to the Grand Canyon in to create Lookout Studio. Designed as a viewpoint, the tower blends with its limestone surroundings.
Committed to maintaining the integrity of the canyon rim, Colter spent months researching and climbing around the towers at Hovenweep.
Eventually she created the perfect replica of a crumbling ancient ruin. The focal point of the rustic interior is a huge fireplace and balconies with high-powered telescopes. Twisting paths rim the cliff face and offer quiet spots from which to contemplate the canyon. She created this spot based on the true story of a reclusive mountain man who once led tourists down through the canyon.
The resulting jumble of rocks that seem to emerge from the canyon belie the great care and research that she lavished on the project. This intricate structure of massive stones is supported by rough-hewn logs and a latilla ceiling wood pieces laid between beams. Still, she managed to make her mark as one of the few women to actively work in twentieth-century architecture. JSTOR is a digital library for scholars, researchers, and students. By: Allison C. March 1, May 28, Share Tweet Email Print. As Western writer Frank Waters recalled in : For years an incomprehensible woman in pants, she rode horseback through the Four Corners making sketches of prehistoric pueblo ruins, studying details of construction, the composition of adobes and washes.
Mary Colter right showing blueprint to Mrs. Ickes wife of secretary of interior , c. Riley notes: Because of her lookout points and telescope stations, people came closer to nature, but they viewed natural wonders from seats in authentic-appearing dining rooms and coffee-shops; traveled by mule-back in the Grand Canyon by day and slept in a bed with southwestern-style headboards by night; and watched Native artisans at work kneeling on wooden floors with log walls around them.
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The Fred Harvey Company was famous for building fine restaurants and hotels along the railroads of the West. The popular image of the Indian pueblo is a Mesa Verde-style cliffside apartment house, but most were freestanding, like the houses at Tusayan, built on flat, exposed plateaus and mesas. On a summer trip to San Francisco, she visited a friend who worked at a Fred Harvey shop. Walking around one is like roaming the deck of a weather-beaten ship; the sides of the mesa drop abruptly to the plateau, as endless as the ocean. The art critic Robert Hughes once called Colter "one of the pioneers of the American theme-park mentality. You must show your pass at check-in to receive the discount on your site only. Paul teaching mechanical drawing, Colter took a job in with the Fred Harvey Company.
Journal of the Southwest, Vol. Western Historical Quarterly, Vol.