The engine also suffered from frequent flameouts and compressor stalls. The first Demon with a J71 flew in October Another significant problem was the reliability of the ejection seats: initial versions were found to be unreliable and were eventually replaced with Martin-Baker ejection seats that were becoming the standard Navy seat of choice due to their higher performance at low altitude and better reliability.
Despite the problems, the Navy ordered F3H-2s, and the first were deployed in March In later years, the upper two cannons were often omitted to save weight. Deployed aircraft carried both types of missiles, the Sparrow on the inboard rails and the Sidewinder outboard. Cannons were not used in carrier air defense applications, but they were installed and armed when situations such as the Cuban Missile Crisis dictated, and where the aircraft might be deployed against surface targets. A reconnaissance version, the F3H-2P, was proposed, but never built.
It remained the Navy's front-line fighter until , when it was succeeded by the F-4 Phantom II which was a development of a proposed 'Super Demon', a larger and much heavier version of the F3H. Developed during the Korean War to counter the MiG, it did not claim any aerial victories with missiles or dogfights, although it flew over Lebanon and Quemoy in In , the F3H was redesignated F Due to excellent visibility from the cockpit, the Demon earned the nickname 'The Chair'.
Demon pilots were known colloquially as 'Demon Drivers' and those who worked on the aircraft were known as 'Demon Doctors'. The unfavorable power-to-weight ratio gave rise to the less flattering nickname 'lead sled', sometimes shortened to 'sled'. Two built. Never built. Redesignated F-3C in Redesignated MF-3B in Redesignated F-3B in See templates for discussion to help reach a consensus. Retrieved: 15 January BibliographyAngelucci, Enzo and Peter M.
When jet, turbine and rocketengine development started at the end of World War II, formal designations were assigned to these types of engines almost fromthe beginning. In the last decades, however, there is a trend towards using manufacturers' designations again for engineswhich were not developed specifically for the military.
The following graph shows the various documents and standards used to define the aero engine designation systems. A bold black arrow indicates, that the system underwent no or only minor changes, when defined in a new document. A light gray arrow indicates a major change, i. This article explains the various engine designation systems and lists all aircraft and missile engines,which received a military designation, and the aircraft or missiles which used them.
Because the focus of the article is on the designations, I don't try to give specific details for the engines like power rating, etc.
These details can differ significantlybetween models of the same basic engine anyway. For each engine type, I try to provide a complete list of US militaryaircraft, which used this engine.
To keep these lists reasonably short, I use the following terse format for an aircraft type: Number of engines Military DesignationUsually only the basic designation without specific model letters or numbers is given. That means, that all - or almost all -models of this type used the engine. Exceptions are listed as users of the approriate alternate engine. Additionally, each list of aircraft designations is headed by a descriptor of the designation system used.
To make use of the aircraft listings, you must of course understand the aircraft designations. I havelinks to several sites explaining and listing aircraft designations. I think, the most useful general purpose source for finding some details about an aircraft given its designation isAndrew Chorney's site. The Army and Air Force used oddnumbers from 1 up, while the Navy used even numbers from 2 up. The Air Force was assigned model numbers to , the Navy to and the Army to Lettersare assigned alphabetically from A on I and O are not used.
The letter W is reserved for engines with water injection. T could be combined with other letters, e.
However,I don't know any case, where this occured for contemporaryengines, so this did not pose problems in 'real life'. It is also possible, that the displacement was sometimes rounded to the next 10 cubic inches to get differentdesignations for engines with similar displacement. Note:While this system was theoretically revised by MIL-STD,it is - to all intents and purposes - still in use today, mainly because of two reasons:Existing engines are not redesignated and there is no new piston engine development specifically for the military.
Many manufacturers of commercial engines e. Lycoming and Continental designate their engines according to the'arrangement-displacement' system, which makes it very convenient for the military to use these commercial designations,when such an engine is procured. The Curtiss Chieftain engine was of a unique configuration, and was originally classed as a 'hexagonal' engine - hencethe 'H' prefix.
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It was later redesignated as the R radial engine. Note that there is no dash between the engine type letter and the modelnumber. The Army and Air Force used odd numbers from 31 up, while the Navy usedeven numbers from 30 up.
Due to excellent visibility from the cockpit, the Demon earned the nickname 'The Chair'. The latter is probably done, because the major American manufacturers of modern pistonengines give their engines designations closely following the original 'arrangement-displacement' system. Concerto In C Major Opus Translation: Sonata L20 K Piano solo. The two-letter code 2 indicates the type of propellant. Some Prepositions Confused 5.
Why each numerical sequence was started at 30, I don't know. The following is a list of all assignedcode letters, not all of which were actually used for jet engines: A - Allison Div. AH - American Helicopter Div. AM - Aeromarine Co. AN - Aeronutronics Corp. B - Buick Motor Div. BL - Bridgeport-Lycoming Div. C - Chevrolet Div. D - Chrysler Corp. E - Aircooled Motors, Inc. F - Ford Motor Co.
FF - Frederic Flader, Inc. G - Warner Aircraft Corp. G - Garrett Corp. J - Jacobs Aircraft Engine Co. Kellogg, Inc. MA - Marquardt Aircraft Co. MN - Menasco Manufacturing Co. NH - Northrop Aircraft, Inc. RM - Reaction Motors, Inc. RP - Radioplane Div. S - Solar Aircraft Co. ST - Studebaker Corp. T - Continental Motors Corp. WE - Westinghouse Electric Corp. WS - West Engineering Co.
The same code letters were used in serial numbers for all types of engines, including pistonand rocket engines. This explains why code letters were also assigned to companies which never developed ormanufactured jet or turbine engines. The number 4 designates a specific model of the engine. The Army and Air Force use oddnumbers from 1 up, while the Navy uses even numbers from 2 up. The letter W is reserved for engines with water injection, whilethe combination 'WA' is used for engines with water-alcohol injection.
I don't know for sure, whether the LJ95 really fits into the J-sequence, butconsidering the high number making a separate LJ-series unlikely and the fact, that J95 would be missing otherwise, Irisk a guess. It seems, that only the basic PT6 engine is designated as T Many aircraft use the PT6A version, which isalways exception: T for C, see below listed as such in officialmilitary documents and data sheets. The system the familiar 'LR' designations has gone through all this essentially unchanged and is discussed insection 5. The only difference in the original system was, that odd model numbers were reserved for theAir Force and Army, while the Navy used only even model numbers.
This is similar to early jet engine designations,except that for liquid rockets, the sequence started at 1 instead of This designation system was abandoned in the 's. The two-letter code 2 indicates the type of propellant. Note: There are no dashes and blanks between the three elements of the designation. This standard combined several equipment designation systems,which shared common definitions and procedures, into a single document. Included were the type designation systems forall aerospace engines.