In British theory, they met to allow Collins to " Kiss Hands ". In republican theory, they met to allow Collins to take the surrender of Dublin Castle. Most of the Irish independence movement's leaders were willing to accept this compromise, at least for the time being, though many militant Republicans were not. While the fighting in the south was largely ended by the Truce on 11 July , in the north killings continued and actually escalated until the summer of In Belfast, 16 people were killed in the two days after the truce alone. The violence in the city took place in bursts, as attacks on both Catholics and Protestants were rapidly followed by reprisals on the other community.
In this way, 20 people died in street fighting and assassinations in north and west Belfast over 29 August to 1 September and another 30 from 21—25 November. Loyalists had by this time taken to firing and throwing bombs randomly into Catholic areas and the IRA responded by bombing trams which took Protestant workers to their places of employment. In part, this reflected Michael Collins' view that the Treaty was a tactical move, or "stepping stone", rather than a final settlement. In retaliation, Michael Collins had forty-two loyalists taken hostage in Fermanagh and Tyrone.
Right after this incident, a group of B-Specials were confronted by an IRA unit at Clones in Southern territory, who demanded that they surrender. The IRA unit's leader was shot dead and a gun battle broke out, in which four Special Constables were killed. The withdrawal of British troops from Ireland was temporarily suspended as a result of this event.
Despite the setting up of a Border Commission to mediate between the two sides in late February, the IRA raided three British barracks along the border in March. All of these actions provoked retaliatory killings in Belfast. In the two days after the Fermanagh kidnappings, 30 people lost their lives in the city, including four Catholic children and two women who were killed by a Loyalist bomb on Weaver Street.
Winston Churchill arranged a meeting between Collins and James Craig on 21 January and the southern boycott of Belfast goods was lifted but then re-imposed after several weeks. The two leaders had several further meetings, but despite a joint declaration that "Peace is declared" on 30 March, the violence continued. By this time, the IRA was split over the Anglo-Irish Treaty , but both pro and anti-treaty units were involved in the operation.
This was the last major confrontation between the IRA and British forces in the period — May saw 75 people killed in Belfast and another 30 died there in June. Several thousand Catholics fled the violence and sought refuge in Glasgow and Dublin. Three Special Constables were also killed in the shootings. Michael Collins held the British general Sir Henry Wilson by then MP for North Down responsible for the attacks on Catholics in the north and may have been behind his assassination in June , though who ordered the shooting is unproven. The violence in the north fizzled out by late , the last reported killing of the conflict in what was now Northern Ireland took place on 5 October.
The total number killed in the guerrilla war of between Republicans and British forces in what became the Irish Free State came to over 1, Of these, were police personnel, were from the regular British Army, about were IRA volunteers including 24 official executions , and about were civilians. On 21 November the British army held a memorial service for its dead, of all ranks, of which it counted up to the Truce and 18 killed afterwards. This death toll is usually counted separately from the southern casualties, as many of these deaths took place after 11 July truce that ended fighting in the rest of Ireland.
The majority of the violence took place in Belfast: people were killed there - Catholics and Protestants. Historian of the period Alan Parkinson has suggested that the term 'pogrom' is 'unhelpful and misleading in explaining the events of the period' as the violence was not state directed or one sided. Similarly in recent decades, attention has been drawn to the IRA's shooting of civilian informers in the south. Several historians, notably Peter Hart have alleged that those killed in this manner were often simply considered "enemies" rather than being proven informers. Especially vulnerable, it is argued, were Protestants, ex-soldiers and tramps.
The long-planned evacuation from dozens of barracks in what the army called "Southern Ireland" started on 12 January , following the ratification of the Treaty and took nearly a year, organised by General Macready. It was a huge logistical operation, but within the month Dublin Castle and Beggar's Bush barracks were transferred to the Provisional Government. By the end of May the remaining forces were concentrated on Dublin, Cork and Kildare.
Tensions that led to the Irish Civil War were evident by then and evacuation was suspended.
By November about 6, soldiers remained in Dublin at 17 locations. In April , an executive of IRA officers repudiated the treaty and the authority of the Provisional Government which had been set up to administer it.
A hardline group of Anti-Treaty IRA men occupied several public buildings in Dublin in an effort to bring down the treaty and re-start the war with the British. There were a number of armed confrontations between pro and anti-treaty troops before matters came to a head in late June Desperate to get the new Irish Free State off the ground and under British pressure, Michael Collins attacked the anti-treaty militants in Dublin, causing fighting to break out around the country. The subsequent Irish Civil War lasted until mid and cost the lives of many of the leaders of the independence movement, notably the head of the Provisional Government Michael Collins , ex minister Cathal Brugha , and anti-treaty Republicans Harry Boland , Rory O'Connor , Liam Mellows , Liam Lynch and many others : total casualties have never been determined but were perhaps higher than those in the earlier fighting against the British.
President Arthur Griffith also died of a stroke during the conflict. Following the deaths of Griffith and Collins, W. Cosgrave became head of government. Cosgrave became President of the Executive Council , the first internationally recognised head of an independent Irish government. The Irish Free State government subsequently passed a Compensation Act, to cover losses including:. The Irish Free State hereby assumes all liability undertaken by the British Government in respect of malicious damage done since the twenty-first day of January, nineteen hundred and nineteen, to property in the area now under the jurisdiction of the Parliament and Government of the Irish Free State, and the Government of the Irish Free State shall repay to the British Government, at such time or times and in such manner as may be agreed upon, moneys already paid by the British Government in respect of such damage, or liable to be so paid under obligations already incurred.
A memorial called the Garden of Remembrance was erected in Dublin in , on the fiftieth anniversary of the Easter Rising. The date of signing of the truce is commemorated by the National Day of Commemoration , when all those Irish men and women who fought in wars in specific armies e. This entry is from Wikipedia, the leading user-contributed encyclopedia. It may not have been reviewed by professional editors see full disclaimer. Donate to Wikimedia.
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Irish revolutionary period — Main article: Irish Home Rule Movement. Main article: Easter Rising. Result of the UK general election in Ireland. See also: Timeline of the Irish War of Independence. Police wanted poster for Dan Breen , one of those involved in the Soloheadbeg Ambush. Most were assassinated on 21 November The Custom House in Dublin. Craig tacitly approved of "organised reprisals" on nationalists for IRA attacks. HMSO image.
The symbol of the Republic: The Irish tricolour which dated back to the Young Ireland rebellion of A symbol of British rule: The standard of the Lord Lieutenant, using the union flag created under the Act of Union A crowd gathers at the Mansion House in Dublin in the days before the truce. The Letter of Accreditation signed by President de Valera in The letter defined the Irish delegates to the Anglo-Irish negotiations as plenipotentiaries. Cosgrave The first head of government in the Free State.
Main article: Irish Civil War.